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|The partly controversial requirements on engine evolution for better driving performance, adherence to very low emission limits and low fuel consumption as well, call for research into the fundamental relationships of the engine combustion process. Of major importance here are the interactions of chemical reactions with pulse, heat and material transport in the unsteady flow.|
An important objective for improving energy use and reducing the potential damage of traffic is therefore to extend knowledge of the fundamentals of engine combustion and thereby facilitate improvements in the combustion processes.
Within this research focus the following research projects are associated:
Contemporary Natural Gas (NG) engines for passenger car applications are not consequently optimized for NG operation. But, due to its high knock resistance, NG offers a high efficiency potential versus gasoline already. EE-C-Methane consists mainly of very neat methane. Therefore, it offers an even higher knock resistance (higher Methane Number) than NG. The higher knock resistance can be transformed into higher efficiency by further increasing the compression ratio (CR) and the boost level of the engine.
In order to exploit the potential and to achieve the high efficiencies, while maintaining drivability and component durability, many aspects need to be considered during the development of a dedicated EE-C-Methane engine, which are content of the described project MethCar. Beside the significant rise of the peak combustion pressure capability of the base engine, volumetric efficiency is going to be increased by means of a new methane direct injection system and a turbo charger with variable turbine geometry, as well as a fully variable valvetrain. Furthermore, the impact of the methane composition (EE-C-Methane) is an important factor for the market introduction potential of methane as automotive fuel. Therefore, in MethCar, the impact of the expected main components of EE-Methane (H2, CH4) and trace elements (as sulfur and compressor oil) on component wear and catalyst efficiency is investigated.
The 3rd innovative element of the study is the investigation how to avoid particle emissions robustly, with the focus on small particles.
Within this research focus in the past the following research projects were associated:
The use of biofuels in direct injection gasoline engines is of increasing importance for the reduction of global CO2 emissions. On the other hand, studies have shown that it can lead to increased soot particle emissions. The current study from the Junior Research group “BiOtto” addresses this issue and has the objective to identify whether, and under which conditions the admixing of biogenic fuel components in direct injection gasoline engines could result in higher soot emissions. In this context, processes of soot formation and oxidation are systematically investigated for fuels that contain surrogates of biogenic fuels (e.g. Ethanol, Butanol) in different concentrations.
The BiOtto Project: “Formation of soot particles and catalytic filter regeneration for application of biomass fuels in direct-injection spark-ignition engines” (Nachwuchsgruppe „BiOtto“, FKZ: 22026711, 22041011, 22040811, 22041111) is funded by the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture, represented by the FNR (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe). Research partners of the chair of Combustion Technology of the Engler-Bunte-Institute (EBI-vbt) in the framework of BiOtto are the Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics of the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (LTT - project coordinator) and the chairs of Numerical Thermo-Fluid Dynamics (NTFD) and of Reaction Engineering (RT) of the Technical University of Freiberg.
At EBI-vbt, experimental data are generated using laminar model flames for the validation of numerical models for soot growth/ oxidation that are being developed in the framework of the project (NTFD).
The models are used for detailed engine simulations and comparison with experimental measurements with optical diagnostic methods applied in a partially transparent direct injection engine (LTT). Overall, the numerical and experimental engine process characterization provides feedback for the development of efficient catalysts, suitable for the regeneration of gasoline particle filters (RT).